• The Determination of Socioeconomic Situations that Affect the Life Conditions of Poor Households: The Case of Elazığ

     Merve Sefa YILMAZ, ​​​​​​​Pelin KILINÇ

    Araştırma Makalesi

    Pelin KILINÇ1

    ORCID: 0000-0002-5820-3615

     Merve Sefa YILMAZ2

    ORCID: 0000-0003-1068-6352

     DOI: 10.54752/ct.1241230

     Abstract: In this study, a descriptive analysis of the socio-economic status of poor households was made in order to reach human-level needs. Thus, it has been tried to determine how poverty affects the living conditions of individuals. The study is important in terms of revealing how poverty deepens the living conditions of the households living in poverty and revealing this with the expressions and experiences of the poor individuals. The sample of the research consists of forty-five households determined by the snowball technique, one of the purposeful sampling methods. Only one of the parents in each household was interviewed. The data of the research is based on the results of the data obtained from the semi-structured interview form. The study is qualitative research and also a case study based on the descriptions. As a result of this study that was conducted to understand how the life profiles and conditions of the poor individuals more accurately, it is determined that individuals experience poverty quite deeply. In this study, in which it is tried to consider the indicators of poverty from a household-based and individual perspective, it has been tried to determine the socio-economic status of the households, their deficiencies in basic needs such as shelter, nutrition, clothing, and their neediness.

    Keywords: Poverty, indicator of poverty, living conditions of the poor, socio economic profile, poverty in Elazığ

    Yoksul Hanelerin Yaşam Koşullarını Etkileyen Sosyo-ekonomik Durumların Tespiti: Elazığ Örneği

    Öz: Bu çalışmada insani düzeydeki ihtiyaçlara ulaşmada yoksul hanelerin sosyoekonomik durumlarının betimsel bir analizi yapılmıştır. Böylece yoksulluğun bireylerin yaşam koşullarını nasıl etkilediği tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışma yoksulluğun yoksulluk içinde yaşayan hanelerin yaşam koşullarını nasıl derinleştirdiğini ve bunu yoksul fertlerin anlatımları ve deneyimleri ile ortaya koyması açısından önemlidir. Araştırmanın örneklemini amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden kartopu tekniğiyle belirlenmiş kırk beş hane oluşturmaktadır. Her hanede ebeveynlerden sadece biri ile görüşme yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın verileri ise yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formundan elde edilen verilerin sonuçlarına dayanmaktadır. Araştırma nitel bir araştırma olup betimlemeye dayalı bir durum tespit çalışmasıdır. Yoksul fertlerin yaşam profilleri ve koşullarının nasıl olduğunu daha iyi anlayabilmek adına yapılan bu çalışma neticesinde kişilerin yoksulluğu derin bir şekilde yaşadıkları tespit edilmiştir. Hane bazlı ve bireysel açıdan yoksulluğun belirleyicileri olarak ele alınmaya çalışılan bu çalışmada hanelerin sosyoekonomik durumları, barınma, beslenme, giyim gibi temel ihtiyaç alanlarındaki eksiklikleri ve muhtaçlık durumları tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır.

    Anahtar Kavramlar: Yoksulluk, yoksulluk göstergeleri, yoksulların yaşam koşulları, sosyoekonomik profil, Elazığ’da yoksulluk


    The concept of poverty, which has a multifaceted and complex structure in terms of its conceptual dimension, does not have a single definition. The fact that people with different perspectives, social factors, socioeconomic criteria, lifestyle and even worldview try to define poverty causes difficulties to reach a consensus around the concept (Memiş, 2014: 148).However, in its simplest form, poverty is generally defined as a state of being deprived of financial resources and sometimes cultural resources (Marshall, 2005: 825). While defining poverty, not only the economic indicators, but also factors such as social and even political criteria, social habits, socio-cultural changes, etc. ought to be considered to make its definition (Benli and Yenihan, 2018: 2). Generally, the most common view defines poverty according to the absolute poverty approach based on income and consumption expenditures. Accordingly, poverty is tried to be defined as "the situation of not having enough resources to meet the needs of people" or "the state of being below the absolute minimum level of welfare" and "the situation in which the needs for goods and services necessary for survival cannot be met" (Alagh, 1992: 109 cited by Şenses, 2017: 62-63).

    The first definition of poverty that comes to mind is the attempts to explain it with economic indicators. As a matter of fact, it has created a perception that poverty can be eliminated with well-developed and appropriate economic policies. This approach defines poverty as “the state of being unable to meet the basic needs of people'' and economic inadequacy. However, poverty is a multifaceted phenomenon that could be argued to be related to people's social, political, cultural rights and deprivations, ability, social exclusion, sub-class situations, inequality and even where and how they see themselves individually (Açıkgöz, 2013: 36). Even though the definitions change, poverty is expressed as the situation in which individuals are either absolutely or relatively below the standard of living in the society and cannot meet the necessary minimum needs (Akalın, 2017: 1377). Much of the poverty debate stems from the way the concept is defined. Although most of the definition efforts are based on economics, poverty is not perceived as just lack of financial needs and physical danger. Including the social and psychological conditions of individuals, poverty also causes not to be able to reach a humane standard of living, not acquire a decent life, and thus be excluded, and lose self-esteem (Bilen and San, 2006: 168).

    The “Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2022” report of the World Bank deals with the poverty crisis caused by the Covid-19 epidemic and the global shock that emerged after the Ukraine-Russia war. It has been tried to reveal how the poverty line is deepened and how it is affected by what can be done to reduce poverty. In 2019, almost a quarter of the global population, twenty-three percent, lived below the US$3.65 poverty line and almost a half, forty-seven percent, lived below the US$6.85 poverty line (World Bank Group, 2022: 22). The number of people living in extreme poverty likely increased by eleven percent in 2020 -from 648 million to 719 million. This is a historic setback in the fight against global poverty (World Bank Group, 2022: 3). The rise in global poverty is not limited to extreme poverty measured at the international poverty line. At the US$3.65 poverty line, the line for the typical LMIC, global poverty increased by about 1.3 percentage points -from 23.5 percent in 2019 to 24.8 percent in 2020. At the US$6.85 poverty line, the line for the typical upper-middle-income country (UMIC), the poverty headcount rate also increased by 1.2 percentage points in 2020 (equivalent to 134 million more poor people) (World Bank Group, 2022: 4). At least 667 million people were expected to be in extreme poverty by 2022 (World Bank Group, 2022: 7).

    All these explanations about the definition of poverty and what its causes stem from the effort to understand poverty. In this study, it is tried to determine the socioeconomic status of poor individuals and their living standards. Thus, situations such as how poor households experience poverty, their perspectives on poverty, their concerns and expectations about the future are described and analyzed.

    In the findings part of our research, we focused on the determinants of poverty and especially on the demographic and economic determinants. We can say that the aim of the research is to determine the situation of the poor in this direction and to try to make sense of poverty with their expressions.

    Evaluation of Research Findings

    This research is based on interviews with households living in the city center of Elazig and determined to be poor by the Social Assistance and Solidarity Foundation. The research is generally based on making a descriptive determination of the socioeconomic status of poor households. It is aimed to make determinations about how they experience poverty, their perspectives on poverty, how they can cope with it and contribute to the field. It is possible to say that the poor people experience poverty more deeply and even the rates of impoverishment increase with unemployment, especially when it is considered together with the Covid-19 epidemic. Such research will always be needed so that we can understand how this affects the lives of the poor.

    The study was carried out between March 2022 and April 2022 in Sanayi, Salıbaba, Çatalçeşme, Sarayatik, Rüstempaşa and Mustafapaşa neighborhoods in the city center of Elazığ. The reason why the study population was chosen as the province of Elazig is to try to understand the poverty situation of the region where the researchers live. In this context, it is aimed to analyze and describe the current poverty situation after the poverty studies (for this see)3 which were carried out in the case of Elazig province. The reason for choosing these neighborhoods is that they are places where the poor are located more frequently. These neighborhoods were preferred in order to see the poverty profiles of the people living in these places where poverty deepens. These neighborhoods, selected from the places where the poor are located, have been determined based on the data of the "Elazig Poverty Map Project (2007:256)"4. The study was limited to the neighborhoods listed above, since some regions and residents could not be reached in a healthy way while the field of study was being conducted. It is aimed to make an in-depth analysis of the subject in order to better analyze a special and disadvantageous issue such as poverty. Since it was planned to conduct interviews with poor individuals, a qualitative research method was preferred for the study. In this study, it is aimed to examine the daily life profiles and conditions of the poor in depth and to describe their situation in line with their own expressions and experiences, rather than obtaining a macro-scale poverty data. For this reason, rather than a quantitative study, the study aims to be a qualitative study in line with its purpose. In order to determine the universe and sample of the research, snowball sampling technique, which is one of the purposeful sampling methods, was used. The reason for choosing purposive sampling is that it allows the selection of information-rich situations in order to conduct in-depth research in the context of the purpose of the study (Büyüköztürk et al., 2013). Snowball sampling technique, on the other hand, focuses on people and critical situations from which rich data can be obtained, and reaches the universe by examining these people and critical situations (Baltacı, 2018: 253). In other words, in order to understand poverty, which is a critical issue, the snowball technique is used to try to reach the poor as people experiencing this situation and from whom we obtain rich data. Based on some limited data obtained from the Social Assistance and Solidarity Foundation (address information of some poor households is given), poor households were reached, and with the guidance of these poor households and neighborhood shopkeepers, other poor households were also reached and interviews were conducted with forty-five households in total. In this context, in-depth interviews were conducted with forty-five households (one of the parents (mother or father) in forty-five households) as a result of the technique used in the field (snowball sampling technique) and the households determined to be poor and in need of assistance by the Social Assistance and Solidarity Foundation. During the interview, it was possible to interview three men and forty-two women, since the person who was in the household at that moment was interviewed. The data in the study is a case study based on the analysis of the answers obtained from the semi-structured interview form. The case study includes a detailed description of individuals and situations and then the analysis of themes or problems (Dede, 2016: 196). According to Yin (2018: 18 cited in Merriam, 2015: 40), the case study deals with a current phenomenon in its real-life context. In addition, it is a research method that allows the researcher to examine a phenomenon or event in depth, based on how and why questions (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2011). While interpreting the data of this research subject, analysis was tried to be done by using both the tables and the statements of the interviewees.

    Purpose and Importance of Research

    This study was carried out with the aim of understanding the deprivation and grievances of the poor in a singular way, not with the aim of reaching a comprehensive and wide sample that can represent poverty. This research was carried out with the thought that it would be more meaningful to try to understand human experiences and poverty situations rather than reaching conclusions about the poor by making generalizations.

    If we try to give a brief explanation about our purpose in choosing the subject, this will also reveal the importance of our research. Briefly, the aim of the research is;examining the economic situation of poor households, to be able to see where they are in the current standard of living, observing what kind of environment and how they live, to learn what poverty means to them, to learn how the poor people live and how many people they live with, to be able to learn whether they have a sense of belonging to the places or neighborhoods they live in, to learn the nutritional habits of the poor and how they can be fed, to be able to see what their purchasing power is capable of and their management status and according to the poor, we can list them as learning what can be done to avoid poverty.

    Socioeconomic Profile and Poverty

    Before the information about the socioeconomic status, the perceptions of poverty of the interviewees within the scope of the research were also tried to be determined. Apart from the many definitions made regarding the phenomenon of poverty, in research, the interviewees were asked to define poverty. When we asked our interviewees, based on their life experiences and difficulties, what poverty means, the statements obtained can be listed as follows:

    (I;2) "Calculating even the bread you buy."

    (I;3) "Thinking about the next day."

    (I;8) "To have many children and low income."

    (I,12) "It means not being able to eat, wear, and do everything you want. Poverty means being concerned about whether to have something."

    (I;15) "Poor is the one who does not have a bowl of food in their house is the one who is hungry."

    (I;24) "It is the absence of material and moral support. You look at people, you say, they are in another environment, we are in another."

    (I;25) "Opportunities that you do not have. It means that children lack everything. You are always lacking."

    (I;26) “It is being restless. It's being sad every day. You can't feed, drink, or dress. Because you don't have the means, you can't buy anything. You cry but there is nothing you can do. This is poverty.”

    (I;28) "Poverty is not about money, it's about compassion. For instance, someone might be very rich, but doesn't share. The poor do, after all. Compassion is different."

    (I;29) "It is the absence of food. It is hunger, the poor are exposed."

    (I;36) "It's a disgrace. Nobody cares about you when you don't have money. Poverty is the callus on our feet."

    (I;42) “This is the will of Allah. If Allah has given it, we will endure.”


    These different definitions point to different dimensions of poverty. We can say that definitions that can be included in absolutist, relative, humanitarian, etc. poverty classifications have been introduced by the interviewees. They define poverty as the name of being poor, having trouble making ends of the day, not being able to meet the needs of children, not being able to find moral support, suffering from hunger, experiencing uneasiness, being disgraced, and facing mercilessness.

    Poverty is one of the important areas that affect the development economy of a country. In fact, there is only one goal in the basis of the development policies of countries. Its aim is to provide people with a healthy, long and livable comfortable life. Development is mostly measured by the size of national income together with the increase in resource and financial wealth. It is thought that with this increase, poverty will also decrease. However, the overlooked point is that only the income dimension is not essential for development. Poverty cannot be explained simply by not having (or cannot) having financial power (Taş and Özcan, 2012: 423). For this reason, the solutions that development policies will follow on the basis of income will not eliminate poverty as a problem. The struggles of the countries of the world with poverty and the data they reveal how the situation is in this regard, reveal the seriousness of the issue. It is because poverty is a problem not only in underdeveloped or developing countries but also in developed countries. It is possible to say that with the Covid-19 epidemic, poverty has deepened even more and has affected the whole world economically. The epidemic period, in which unemployment increased, short and flexible working intensified, unpaid leaves increased, and capital decreased, caused poverty to deepen and increase. These consequences affect economic growth by disrupting the production and consumption balance in the macroeconomic dimension. In addition, the epidemic created many shock effects not only in economic terms, but also in health, social, psychological, cultural and other parameters of daily life (Alpago and Alpago, 2020: 20). The world’s poorest have faced two extraordinarily difficult years. The pandemic has caused unprecedented reversals in poverty reduction that are further exacerbated by rising inflation and the effects of the war in Ukraine. We estimate that these combined crises will lead to an additional 75 million to 95 million people living in extreme poverty in 2022, compared to pre-pandemic projections. If the more pessimistic scenario plays out, 2022 could be the second-worst year in terms of progress made in reducing extreme poverty this century -behind only 2020, when there was an actual increase in global poverty (World Bank, 2022).

    It is useful to look at some research data to see the extent of poverty in Turkey. According to the results of the September 2022 survey of the Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions, the amount of hunger limit for a family of four (expressing the monthly food expenditure that needs to be balanced and adequately fed) is 7,245.18 TL per month. In addition, food expenditures and non-food needs (housing, electricity, water, fuel), clothing, education, health, transportation, etc. The total amount of other compulsory monthly expenditures (poverty line) is 23,599.93 TL. Considering the minimum wage of 5,500.35 TL per month, which is in effect together with these limits, it is possible to say that people are still below the hunger limit under these conditions and even have great financial difficulties (Confederation of Workers' Unions of Turkey, September 2022).

    Turkey's HDI value in 2021 is 0.838 points in the 2022 Human Development Report, which measures poverty with human development criteria. With this value, it ranked 54th among 89 countries and regions (United Nations Development Program [UNDP], Human Development Report, 2021/2022: 272). In summary, the Human Development Index (HDI) has standards such as a long and healthy life, having knowledge and having a good/quality life standard. Here the HDI is evaluated as the geometric mean of the normalized indices for each of these three dimensions. In terms of the human development index, the relationship between these three criteria and poverty is important. We cannot say that poor individuals can eat well and healthily. An unhealthy life reduces the quality of life and shortens human life. Knowledge, on the other hand, is intertwined with poverty in terms of education level. Increasing the level of education is seen as one of the most effective ways to reduce poverty. Having a good and quality living standard is indexed with income. The low level of income lowers the standard of living, and the inequality in income distribution reveals the problem of poverty (UNDP, 2020b).

    In a study by Evcim, Güneş, and Orhan (2019), the determinants of poverty were identified and tabulated. In our study, it has been determined that some of these household-based poverty determinants and the factors we try to determine about poverty situations are common. In the table below, determinants that are used to measure household and individual poverty status are given.


    Table 1: Household and Individual Determinants of Poverty


    Household and Individual Poverty

    Demographic factors

    ·       Household size

    ·       Household structure

    ·       Education/age/gender of the household head

    ·       Vineyard

    Economic Factors

    ·       Household employment/unemployment status

    ·       Household income

    ·       Household consumption habits

    ·       Household properties

    Social Factors

    ·       The ability of the household to meet their health/education/shelter needs

    ·       Rural-Urban

    ·       Geographical Isolations

    ·       Climate conditions

    ·       Annual average

    ·       Precipitation Amount

    ·       a good government

    Source: Determinants of Poverty (Evcim et al., 2019).5


    Based on all these discourses and data, it would be useful to convey the socio-demographic data firstly when we need to analyze the results we have found in our study. Accordingly, the demographic status of the interviewees participating in the study is as follows:


    Table 2: Demographic Data


    Number of the interviewees

    Average Age

    Marital Status

    Educational Status







    31 Civil Marriage, 3 Informal Marriage, 6 Divorced, 1 Widow, 1 Civil marriage but separated

    11 Illiterate, 6 literate, 18 Primary School Graduate, 1 Secondary School dropout, 1 Secondary School Graduate, 1 High school dropout, 4 High school graduate








    1 Married, 1 Divorced, 1 Widower

    1 Illiterate, 2 Primary School Graduate


    In order to reveal the socioeconomic dimension of the study, the income and working status of the poor families were determined. Accordingly, the information obtained about who the employees are in the household is as follows:














    Table 3: Working Condition


    The table showing the monthly income of the household is as follows:


    Table 4: Household Average Monthly Income

    Between 0-500TL

    Between 501-1000TL

    Between 1001-1500TL

    1501TL and above









    5 Households


    16 Households


    17 Households


    7 Households



    According to the table showing the monthly average household income information, it has been revealed that seventeen households (38%) have a monthly income of 1001-1500 TL with a maximum rate of 38%. Five households stated that they have monthly income between 0-500TL. The important point here is that these incomes are not regular. For this reason, the average expression with monthly income is used. In an attempt to calculate the average monthly income, it is calculated by including and combining the income earned during their working period and the benefits received by those who are assisted by Social Assistance or Social Services (Conditional Cash Transfer-Education Assistance, Health Assistance-Disabled Assistance (three families receive disability assistance)). Except for the households that open a business and the household where the child works as a cashier, none of the households interviewed receives a regular monthly cash inflow for a year. Employees mostly try to meet their needs by receiving daily or weekly wages. It has been revealed that the household employees work in irregular jobs and are mostly unemployed during the winter months. Again, when it comes to the case of children working in the household, it is determined that fifteen children in total out of forty-five households work full-time, half-day (after school) or during summer holidays in various jobs (in industry, as a porter, by collecting scraps, by selling handkerchiefs, by shining shoes or working as a cashier), both to support the home and to earn money for school. The attempts of children who have to work in poor households to contribute to the household income is nothing but an effort to improve their living conditions, even partially.

    The work done by the households (all parents and children) in the households interviewed can be listed as follows: Construction, hawking, industrial worker, daily work (stair cleaning, house cleaning), porter, scrapping, handkerchief selling, and working as a cashier, shoe shining, begging and freelance work.

    In addition to these, it has been determined that the father is mostly a porter, construction worker, freelance job in the industry, scrap dealer and field worker in the household, and the father is not working in twenty-one households. In households where the father is not working, it has been determined that the father is not working due to reasons such as death, divorce, illness, inability to find a job, being in prison and the father's obligation to look after the children due to the mother's health problem. In some households, it was determined that the mother was working due to financial difficulties. It has been determined that women generally try to make a living by cleaning stairs, daily cleaning and selling handkerchiefs. Women working in the handkerchief sales business stated that their children try to earn money either by selling handkerchiefs or by begging.

    While the majority of children work to support the house, two mothers do not trust outside, so they state that it is safer for them to go to work with their father. One mother, on the other hand, implicitly stated that even though it is a settled situation as a living culture -working in the household/employment of children- she does a profession called “asking from houses” and children shine shoes, avoiding the fact that children beg.

    The number of households with a monthly income of more than 1500 TL (except for the months when they are not unemployed) is seven. Although it is not regular in these seven households, the money they receive with social benefits can almost reach the minimum wage (2825 TL) every two or three months. However, the number of households below the minimum wage is thirty-eight (85%), even if there are benefits during the months they can work. The lack of a regular monthly income for poor households is one of the most challenging conditions for their economic situation. Reasons such as not having a regular income, having an income below the minimum wage, working in irregular jobs, being unemployed both cause poverty to live and keep it alive, cause it to continue, and cause it to become a vicious circle. It was also revealed that no one was working in fourteen households. The low level of education in poor households is another striking aspect. In many poverty studies, attention is drawn to the relationship between education and poverty. The low level of education of poor individuals affects them negatively in terms of occupation and negatively along with their ability to find employment and employment status. The table that emerged in this study reveals the situation once again.

    There are four categories regarding where the money entering the household is primarily spent. These include kitchen expenses, heating, debt, and children's education and needs. The interviewees answered this question by ticking more than one option. Accordingly, the most common expenditure was kitchen expenses (52.3%), then debts (32.3%), then children's needs (13.9%), and lastly heating (1.5%).

    While the number of those who owe money to any place/person in the household is thirty-eight, the number of those who do not is seven. Twenty-one families mainly owe to tradesmen (grocery store, etc.). There are also those who owe to the shopkeepers and those who owe the store and the bills. The remaining families have debts to the store, bank, credit card, bills, landlord (including those who have paid installments to HDAK) or individuals. The important point here is that it has been revealed that poor households do not have debts to a single place. Twelve households with the least payment have monthly debts of 300-500TL (to shopkeepers, invoices, etc.). Considering that the monthly income of the households is irregular and below the minimum wage and those who pay rent are considered, it becomes clear how much the financial difficulties are for the poor families.

    Financial difficulties are one of the biggest problems for poor individuals. Spending the day and not knowing what will happen tomorrow add to the suffering of the poor. First of all, the situation of their children worries them. The interviewees were asked whether they had concerns about the future as well as their current situation due to their financial difficulties. Except for one household, all the rest stated that they have concerns about the future of their families. In this context, some of the answers given by the interviewees are as follows:

    (I;3): “What will we do if our aid is cut off?”

    (I;5): “My children will not be able to read and be needy in the future.”

    (I;17): “I have never felt safe. We live in fear and anxiety that it will go like this.”

    (I;23): “Not being able to feed and clothe my children well.”

    (I;40): “We fear if we will always be tenants. We are 40-50 years old, there is no house, no peace... We are worried about the future.”

    In addition to this, the following question was asked to the interviewees as “What would you like to change about your life if you were given an opportunity”. Accordingly, some of the statements of the interviewees are as follows:

    (I;2): “I would study; I would have a profession.”

    (I;4): “I would like my husband to have a regular job.”

    (I;8): “I wouldn't have had that many children.”

     (I;10): “I wish my income was higher.”

    (I;13): “I would like my children to have a warm room.”

    (I;31): “I wish I could buy clothes and food for my children.”

    (I;41): “I would like to have an orderly life, to have order in my house. I would like to cook a hot meal and have a job where I can commute regularly. I would like to sit at a table with my children, which we long.

    (I;44): “I would like to have a house for my child and myself and support for my child to study, and being able to be treated for my illness.”


    The anxiety and desire of the poor is mostly to be able to give their children a good life and to have a better future for them. The concept that is frequently encountered in the statements of the interviewees is order. A tidy house, a tidy job, a tidy life… It is because the poor are worried about making the day. The priorities in their life are to pay the rent regularly, to pay the bills, to meet the needs of the children (they are mostly for education), to cover the kitchen expenses. For the poor who cannot meet these basic needs and try to meet them with great difficulty, the problem of earning living is one of the biggest problems.

    In short, the income status of the majority of people who experience financial difficulties and problems and are therefore considered poor and who try to maintain their lives with various aids from the state remains below the minimum standard of living. Working in a regular job, even if it is below the minimum wage, can put the livelihoods of poor households to a certain standard. So much so that a regular income, albeit a small one, is the regular payment of debts, bills, rent, kitchen expenses, children's needs, etc. It provides a partial solution to solve many problems. In particular, we can say that the Covid-19 epidemic has increased the financial impossibilities of poor families. Individuals who have difficulty in finding a job have to experience unemployment more severely during the epidemic period. The statement of one of the interviewees explains this situation more clearly:

    (I,41): “If it weren't for this disease, at least I would have had less trouble finding a job. It went so bad this way. There is no job, TEG has not been recruiting for a year and a half. Employers may not want to employ us because of age, education, and lack of a profession. Somehow there is an obstacle. There is no work left, the door is closed to us wherever we go.”

    In this study, it should be noted that financial problems and lack of opportunities are primary hindrances for the poor. Poor individuals want job opportunities that will provide them with a secure and regular income, rather than more government support or social assistance. It has been determined from the observations in the field as well as the statements of the interviewees that the poor have a fatalistic perspective. Poor individuals try to relieve their situation a little by accepting and showing gratitude to poverty. The daily life practices of poor individuals who are trying to live a life by means of scarcity are in the form of making the day. Not being hungry and exposed is the top priority for the poor. We can state that the individuals within the scope of the study (every individual in the interviewed household) experience poverty in its every sense. Along with the financial problem, they are intertwined with many problems such as health problems, difficulties in meeting the needs of children, not being able to eat adequately and healthily, not being able to supply their clothing needs or using old/used clothes, problems related to the home and environment they live in, social isolation, future anxiety, worry and anxiety. For this reason, the priority for the poor is to have a regular job and income. In short, we can say that being poor means being deprived of many things and experiencing grievances.

    So, what can be done to fight poverty? There are many answers to this question in the literature on the subject. However, in our study, we can list the answers of the interviewees to the question "What can be done to avoid poverty" as follows:

    (I;1): “The poor are poor. It depends on Allah. The poor man will have to work. Nobody can do anything.”

    (I; 42): “Humanity is needed, otherwise everything is useless.”

    (I;8): “Work opportunities and wages should be expanded.”

    (I,3): “Aid needs to be increased. I can't work, for example, we survive on aid."

    (I;24): “The wealthy should help the poor. Allah gives it to them so that you can see what you don't have. Let them give their zakat.”

    (I;27): “People can manage eating and drinking, but education is difficult. Children should be helped to be educated. Because they do not only benefit me, children will also be beneficial to the country and the nation.”

    (I;28): “No wasting should be done… However, there are those who couldn't. There is no poverty without waste.”


    From the statements of the interviewees, we can see a brief summary of the suggestions made so far in the fight against poverty. Suggestions were received from the interviewees such as increasing job opportunities, high wages, increasing state support and aid, providing humanitarian sensitivity and awareness, not wasting, and providing necessary support and assistance to children. Some of the interviewees put forward the idea that there is no solution to the prevention of poverty, that no one can do anything about it, that poverty is an unsolvable issue from a fatalistic point of view, and that this is a vicious circle. While some of the interviewees have a more moderate approach to the fight against poverty, others state that this is a negative and unresolved situation.

    Diet and Clothing

    The concepts of quality of life and high standard of living have come to the fore more with the development of health policies. Living healthy and increasing the quality of life are closely related to socioeconomic status. It is stated that socioeconomic inequalities are a factor that affects the quality of life alone. In order to develop healthy lifestyles, first of all, the socioeconomic status must be good (Koçoğlu and Akın, 2009). The first condition for poor individuals is that they can consume basic food without losing their health in the first place.

    Based on the Household Consumption Expenditure (2019) data of TURKSTAT, what should be in a food basket for basic needs and quality of life include;

    • Bread and cereals (bulgur, rice, pasta)

    • Meat (beef, sheep, chicken), fish and seafood

    • Milk, cheese, eggs

    • Oils and fats

    • Fruits

    • Vegetables

    • Sugar, jam, honey, chocolate, etc.

    • Tea, coffee, cocoa

    • Soft drinks (water, cola) and other solid foods (Turkish Statistical Institute, 2019). Within the scope of the study, it is tried to determine which of these basic foods poor households can consume and how much they can obtain.

    Accordingly, within the scope of the study, when we asked about the frequency of consumption of meat and dairy products, and vegetables and fruits as food in terms of kitchen expenses, the distribution of the answers we received is as follows:


    Table 5: Consumption of Meat Products by Household

    A Few Times in a Year

    Once a Month

    Once a Week


















    Table 6: Consumption of Milk and Dairy Products by Households

    Once a Month

    Once a Week

    A Few Times in a Week

    Almost Everyday























    Table 7: The Frequency of Consumption of Vegetables

    Almost Everyday

    Once a Week

    A Few Times in a Week

    Once a Month


















    Table 8: The Frequency of Consumption of Fruits

    Once a Month

    Once a Week

    A Few Times in a Week

    A Few Times in a Year























    Due to their low income, poor families stated that they had difficulty in meeting their basic needs, which should be in a food basket. So much so that when we asked how often they consumed meat products, it was determined that those who answered "several times a year" among the interviewees could only consume red meat thanks to the donations made during the Feast of Sacrifice. Although some of them have enough financial means to purchase chicken meat once a week, the majority of them stated that they can only consume it once a month or every two months. The rate of those who can consume milk and dairy products weekly is 55.6%. It has been stated that families can only afford to buy products such as milk or yoghurt, but they are financially unable to buy cheese and butter. Poor families, who do their vegetable shopping more weekly, stated that they buy cheap and suitable vegetables, so they do more shopping from the market. 11% of the households interviewed can buy and consume vegetables only once a month. The rate of weekly and annual consumption of fruit is close to each other. However, this contrast similarity is due to the fact that they consume the fruit more because their relatives or neighbors give it weekly. Poor families often cannot get the fruit within their own purchasing power. And those who can stated that they buy more vegetables or the cheapest fruits.


    (I, 44): “When we can buy vegetables and fruit, a market is set up and we go and buy them from there, but in the evening, when usually the market is closer to gathering at that time. In the evening, prices drop a little more. Also, we choose not so good ones, but less fresh ones, so that we can afford it. If we can handle the vegetable, maybe we can get a fruit or something. But, we get only a type. People do not look for fruit very much, so we can spend.

    (I, 27): “When we go to the market, we check if the product is almost to expire. When there are things that have only 1 or 2 days left before they go off, they are cheap, we buy that way. Otherwise, we can't go to the market or anything. You will have money in your pocket, ready to go and purchase."


    The aforementioned statements can be considered in the context of “living strategies”, which are frequently included in the poverty literature (Erdoğan, 2016: 77). In terms of food consumption, poor families stated that they could consume foods especially for spending the day. Information on how many meals a day children can eat, especially is as follows: Children eat one meal a day in three households, two meals a day in twenty households, and three meals in twenty-two households. Children do not eat enough nutrition; even if they eat three times a day, it does not indicate that they are healthy and adequately fed. Parents stated that children have three meals according to their hunger conditions and the way they consume the food at home at that time. As a result, we can easily claim that children are not fed adequately, healthily and regularly.

    How Often and from Where the Grocery Shopping is done:

    The answers we had for the question of how often and from where the poor families do their grocery shopping are listed as: with non-refundable help (three families), from the bazaar (six families), from the bazaar and the supermarkets (seven families), from the bazaar and the small markets (two families), from the bazaar and the peddlers (one family), from the small markets (ten families), from the supermarkets (fifteen families), from the peddlers and the small markets (one family). It is observed that families mostly do the grocery shopping from the bazaars and the small markets. Some families stated that they look for some discounts or choose small markets as they can pay less for the goods that have a closer best before date (bbt). Furthermore, for the families who don’t have cash, it is harder to go to the supermarkets because at the small markets they can ask for shopping on credit.

            When how often they do the grocery shopping is asked, the answers can be listed as: when the non-refundable help is available (five families), one in two-three weeks (seven families), once in a month (twenty-four families) and once in a couple of months (six families). Most of the poor families can do grocery shopping once in a month or once in a couple of months. The ones that can do the grocery shopping once in a week are the families who are able to buy vegetables and goods for breakfast (such as olives, cheese etc.). The families who do the grocery shopping once in a month stated that they try to buy legumes wholesale when they have money. Many of the poor families are unable to do the grocery shopping once in a week. What is described as a weekly grocery shopping is the good of need (such as vegetables, milk, eggs, bread, pasta etc.) at the moment. Some families are unable to do this kind of shopping because they don’t have enough means. For this reason, many of these families buy oil, sugar, goods to eats for breakfast, legumes and vegetables monthly. To exemplify, if a family bought a couple of packages of pasta for their monthly shopping and finished it, they are unable to buy another package. They need to wait until they get the money they need for the grocery shopping. In this sense, we can say that poor families cannot do grocery shopping in a manner that they can keep up with their needs. Thus, they cannot consume healthy food in a variety of options. Hence, we can clearly see that being poor not only affects the purchasing power, but also it diminishes the life quality and standard.

    Where the Clothes-Shopping is made from:

    This study is aimed at understanding how people having problems about supplying with their basic needs deal with the issue of clothing. According to the data, twelve families buy their clothes from bazaars, seventeen with help (old or second hand clothes from charity shops or the used clothes that other people give away), nine with help from relatives and neighbors, five from clothing stores, one from shops and one from peddlers. Nineteen families pay some amount for the clothes, whereas twenty-six families mostly get the clothes with help. The families who buy the clothes state that they can buy clothes only two times and only for school or special celebrations.

    As being able to meet the need of food and accommodation is of utmost importance, buying new clothes is not thought to be necessary. It is observed that clothes with the source of help are used for a long time and economized by patching. Poor families think that spending money for clothes is necessary if the children need clothes.



    As the approaches on improving health standards come into prominence, life quality becomes a vital aim of healthcare services. However, it is stated that life quality has a close relationship with socioeconomic situation, additional to living in a healthy way to improve health. The socioeconomic inequality is a hindering factor for the improvement of life quality. According to the studies made people who have socioeconomically negative circumstances have a negative trend about the life quality too. Two notions, being life quality and healthy life circumstances are very important to determine the life circumstances of the poor people (Koçoğlu and Akın, 2009).

    Table 9: Information regarding Situations of Health


    It has been tried to determine whether the interviewed households have health insurance, whether they have any chronic or serious illness, and whether they have problems in accessing medication. Thirty-nine of the households have a green card, two of them have health insurance, and four of them do not have any health insurance.


    Even if the house is an apartment or a shantytown, it corresponds to a street, a neighborhood, that is, to a spatial practice (Lefebvre, 2016: 46). Everyone should have a house or a place where they can live in safety, peace and health. In order to be protected from external threats and dangers, cold and heat, one of the basic needs after nutrition is shelter (Akalın, 2017: 1374). As a place of residence, the house not only functions to provide protection from external threats, but also provides the practice of living together and establishing and developing human relations (Alver, 2010: 63).

    When it comes to the places where the poor live, the first thing that comes to mind is slums. These spaces, in a way, distance the poor from integrating with the city, and even cause the culture of poverty to become homogeneous here and turn into a duality expressed as spatial cleavage (Aytaç, 2013: 90). Slums refer to social spaces where individuals with the same values and attitudes live (Türkdoğan, 1977: 20). The slums, which are the buildings that are piled up in the outskirts of the cities and mostly sheltering the poor, seem to be identified with poverty. The slums, which cannot be accommodated in apartments where the financial power is not enough, and which is one of the indicators of poverty, are the causes of deprivation, social, ecological, economic, etc. appear as places that are the center of many problems. Slums, which are places where urban poverty is produced and transferred as a cycle within itself, are identified with the problem of poverty (Akalın, 2017: 1379-1380). as well as having a mitigating effect. The slums meet the shelter needs of many poor people as much as they can. Since it provides the poor people with the opportunity to live within their means, it can also provide financial opportunity to meet their other basic needs more or less. Low rent is the biggest advantage. Another advantage is that everyone shares more or less the same problems (Ergun & Koçancı, 2017: 206). In short, one of the things necessary for the poor to continue their vital existence is to meet their spatial needs.

    Within the scope of the research, it was tried to determine in which type of houses and in what places the people we interviewed lived. According to the data:

    Type of House, Possession and Number of Households

    As for the type of shelter among the forty-five households we interviewed, eleven are detached houses, ten are shanty houses, twenty-two are flats, and two are apartment basements. The belonging status of the houses are that twenty-nine of them are rent, six belong to the interviewees, three belong are owned by the interviewees but are on HDAT payment, two belong to their mother/father, four belong to mother-in-law/father-in-law, and one belongs to a philanthropist. Seven of the households paying rent pay between 0-300TL, twenty of them pay between 301-600TL and two households pay between 601-800TL. As the number of households; It has been determined that there are two people in one household, three people in three households, four people in eight households, five people in thirteen households, six people in ten households, seven people in four households, eight people in four households, and nine people in two households.

    It has been observed that in most of the houses in which poor families live (including those in the flats), they live in bad conditions both in terms of household goods and conditions of the houses. It has been determined that only fifteen of the forty-five households interviewed have the feature of being a livable house in the form of cleanliness, cleaning and use of goods. Many other remaining households are far from providing a clean and livable environment for children. It has been determined that there are no sofas and beds in which they can sit and lie down in both households. Children living in poverty have to grow up deprived of many things not only in terms of money but also in the houses they live in. It is determined that children grow up with a poor environment and culture not only in terms of home environment, but also the street/neighborhood.


    Poor people, who gather in areas that are preferred due to low rents, lead a life away from the culture that we can call city life in this environment. Nested slums and settlements resembling such structures actually present us with the appearance of intertwined poverty in different ways and in different lives. It is not inaccurate to state that children raised in these settlements and with such problems have to grow up in poverty in an environment deprived of many advantages and opportunities.

    Type of Heating and Household Complaints

    While three of the interviewed households use natural gas, forty-two households use stoves for heating. As for whether they have problems with the house or not, eight households stated that there was "no problem/problem", while thirty-seven households stated that they had various problems with the house. Those who state that the house is damp are four households, twelve of them say their house is cold, ten households state that their house is damp and that there are insects / mice ten. Those who say that the numbers of rooms are insufficient consist of six households, whereas those who say that the toilet is outside include three houses and those who talk about other problems (untidy and not clean and not reliable as a neighborhood) consist of two households.

    Having a house to live in is one of the most important needs for poor people, regardless of good or bad. However, the quality of the houses they live in is one of the parameters that make the poor actually the poor. Complaints about the place of accommodation listed above are among the problems faced by the poor. When we asked the interviewees, “What would you like to change in your life?” The answers they gave about the house summarize their situation:


    (I;22): “I would like to leave this house and live in a cleaner and smaller house, and to Work in a decent job with my husband, too.”

    (I;34): “I would like to live in a better house in a better neighborhood. My children would be comfortable at home; I would at least trust the environment when they go out. It's very difficult around here.”

    (I;36): “I would like to change my house and things for my children. Children stay in one room in winter; they sleep on a floor bed, no sofa. But in that way, they get cold.”


    Houses/places bearing the traces of poverty leave the poor below the acceptable standard of living in the society. The state of the poor can be understood from the facade, street and neighborhood of the house where they live. The desire to live in a good house for the poor does not mean luxury houses. The houses they want are where every part of the house is warm, without damp and clean, where they have clean and new furniture, and where they can survive comfortably with their children.


    We can say that the increased unemployment rate and lack of employment, especially in recent years, due to the Covid-19 epidemic, have deepened and increased poverty. This epidemic period has been more difficult and harsher for the poor, which we can say are more disadvantaged in terms of working opportunities and chances. This strengthens the fact that poverty is a serious global problem that threatens the future of the world and makes itself more visible in more areas. In order to understand the situation of poor individuals, interviews were conducted with one of the parents in the household. The situation in forty-five households, where we tried to examine their socioeconomic profiles and understand how they experience poverty, is that families do not have a certain standard of economic power to live on. In particular, these families are trying to survive with the support of state aids (such as SASF and CHL). It is revealed that both parents and children work in the household, and some of the children have to do heavy work. Many families with incomes below the minimum wage also have various debts. Both low income and debt situation cause poor families to experience more difficulties. It emerged that this situation puts more strain on the families, as the irregular and low income causes the debts to either accumulate or be partially paid.

    Poor families often have difficulties in meeting even their simplest needs, and they are mostly troubled with the fact that their children have to experience these problems. For this reason, they stated that they needed more job opportunities and changes, and government support. It is because, as stated by Lewis, they do not want their children to live in a cycle of poverty culture. In this, they see education as a tool to save their poverty from the vicious circle. This case study, in which we tried to determine how they experienced poverty, revealed that poor individuals try to live in poverty, in lacking and bare living conditions and in an irregular way. Although some people try to relieve themselves from their situation with a fatalistic perspective and sometimes in gratitude, the existing parameters do not change the fact that these people live in extreme poverty.

    After considering poverty as a global problem, various measures have been taken to combat it. With the support of the state and various organizations and foundations, aid is provided to reduce poverty. In this regard, we can clearly say that poverty is not an issue that can be resolved and ended in the world, although there have been attempts to produce effective and efficient policies and services are increased.

    Genişletilmiş Özet

    Bu araştırma yoksulluğu anlayabilmek adına kapsamlı ve geniş bir örnekleme ulaşma gayesiyle değil, yoksulların kendi mağduriyetlerini onların diliyle anlama amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu kapsamda araştırmanın ana amacı yoksulların öncelikle mutlak anlamda yoksulluk durumlarının betimsel bir analizini yapmaktır. Böylece yoksulların bugün içinde bulundukları koşulların nasıl olduğu ve başka çalışmalara da yön verebilmesi adına çalışmanın önemi ortaya koyulmuş olunacaktır.

    Bu araştırma Elazığ il merkezinde yaşayan ve Sosyal Yardımlaşma ve Dayanışma Vakfı’nca da yoksul olduğu tespit edilmiş hanelerle yapılan görüşmelere dayanmaktadır. Araştırma genel olarak yoksul hanelerin sosyoekonomik durumlarının betimsel bir tespit ve analizini yapmaya dayanmaktadır. Yoksulluğu nasıl deneyimledikleri, yoksulluğa bakış açıları, nasıl başa çıkabildiklerine ilişkin tespitler yapmak ve alana katkı sağlamak amaçlanmaktadır. Çalışma Elazığ il merkezinde özellikle yoksul kesimin daha sık yerleşik olduğu mekanlar seçilerek gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yoksulluk gibi özel ve dezavantajlı bir konunun daha iyi analiz edilebilmesi adına konunun derinlemesine bir incelemesi yapılması hedeflenmiştir. Bunun içinde yoksul fertlerle görüşmeler yapılması planlandığından çalışma için nitel bir araştırma yolu tercih edilmiştir. Yine çalışma kapsamında makro boyutta bir yoksulluk verisi elde etmekten ziyade yoksulların kendi anlatımları ve deneyimleri doğrultusunda yaşam profilleri ve koşullarını derinlemesine incelemek ve durumlarını betimleyebilmek amaçlanmıştır. Bu nedenle nicel bir çalışmadan ziyade çalışma, amacı doğrultusunda nitel bir çalışma gayesi taşımaktadır. Araştırmanın evren ve örneklemini tespit edebilmek adına da amaçlı örneklem yönteminden kartopu örnekleme tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemini böylece kırk beş hane oluşturmaktadır. Kırk beş hane ile derinlemesine görüşmeler yapılmıştır (kırk beş hanede ebeveynlerden biri (anne veya baba) ile). O an hanede bulunan kişi ile görüşüldüğü için toplamda üç erkek ve kırk iki kadınla görüşme yapılabilmiştir. Çalışmadaki veriler ise, yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formundan elde edilen cevapların analizine dayanan bir durum tespit çalışmasıdır.

    Çalışmadan elde edilen araştırma sonuçları ise özetle şu şekildedir: Görüşülen haneler için en başta maddi imkansızlıklar en büyük sorun olduğundan bununla mücadele etmeye çalışmaktadırlar. Gerek devlet yardımlarının gerekse de güvenceli ve düzenli iş imkanlarının sağlanmaması halinde yoksulluk durumlarının kronikleşeceği tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca bu hanelerin gündelik yaşam pratikleri gün kurtarmaya yöneliktir. Ekonomik imkansızlıkları her anlamda yaşayan bu bireyler için aç ve açıkta olmamak en yegane önceliktir. Maddiyat sorunuyla birlikte sağlık sorunu, çocukların ihtiyaçlarını karşılamada yaşanan zorluklar, yeterli ve sağlıklı beslenememe, kıyafet ihtiyaçlarının temin edememe veya eski/kullanılmış kıyafetler kullanma, yaşadıkları ev ve ortamlarla ilgili sıkıntılar, sosyal izolasyona uğrama, gelecek kaygısı, endişe ve kaygı gibi birçok problemle iç içedirler. Bu sebeple yoksul için öncelik düzenli bir iş ve gelirin olmasıdır. Kısaca yoksul olmak birçok şeyden yoksun olmak ve mağduriyetler yaşamak demektir diyebiliriz.

    Yoksul hanelerin tükettiği gıdalar çoğunlukla besin değeri yüksek olabilecek gıdalardan oluşmamaktadır. Ayrıca daha çok alım gücü kolay olabilecek ve açlık durumlarını bastırabilecek gıdalar tüketebildikleri tespit edilmiştir. Hanedeki çocuklardan günde üç öğün yemek yiyebilenlerin dahi sağlıklı ve besleyici öğünler tüketemedikleri ortaya çıkmıştır. Haneler kırmızı et, tavuk gibi besinlerle düzenli olarak beslenememektedir. Ayrıca yoksullar için öncelik gıda ve barınma masraflarını karşılamak olduğundan yeni bir kıyafet almak elzem görülmemektedir. Yardımlarla gelen kıyafetlerin uzun süreli kullanıldığı ve hatta yama yapılarak idare edilmeye çalışıldığı gözlemlenmiştir. Yoksul aileler kıyafete para vermeyi çocuklarının ihtiyaçları oldukça gerekli görmektedirler.

    Sağlık durumu açısından, hanelerden otuz dokuzu Yeşilkartlı, ikisi sağlık güvenceli, dördünün ise herhangi bir sağlık güvencesi bulunmamaktadır. Yoksul hanelerin yaşadıkları evlerin ise durumu on biri müstakil ev, onu gecekondu, yirmi ikisi apartman dairesi ve ikisi apartman bodrum katı şeklindedir. Evlerin aidiyet durumları çoğunlukla kira şeklindedir. Hane halkı sayısı olarak otuz üç hane de beş kişi ve üzerinde kişinin yaşadığı tespit edilmiştir.

    Yoksulluğun küresel bir sorun olarak ele alınması bununla ciddi alamda mücadele edilmesi gerektiğini göstermektedir. Özellikle pandemi sonrası yaşanan ekonomik sıkıntılar yoksulların durumunu daha da derinleştirmiştir. Yoksul bireylerin her anlamda yoksulluk ve yoksunluklarının arttığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Her ne kadar devlet desteği ve çeşitli sosyal yardımlar yapılsa da yoksulluğun ortadan kaldırılması mevcut koşullarda mümkün görünmemektedir. Araştırmamızın nihai çıktısı olarak ise şunu belirtebiliriz: bu hususta her ne kadar etkin ve verimli politikalar üretilmeye ve hizmetler arttırılmaya çalışılsa da yoksulluğun dünya üzerinde çözüme kavuşturulup bitirilebilecek bir konu olmadığı açıktır.


    In this research, while the first author was responsible for the theoretical background, literature review, setting up the model and collecting and analyzing the necessary data, the second author made the arrangements and analysis. The contribution of the first author is 80%, the contribution of the second author is 20%. There is no conflict of interest with any institution or person related to this article and there is no conflict of interest between the two authors.






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    [1]  Dr. Öğretim Üyesi, Fırat University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, pbudak@firat.edu.tr

    [2]  Arş. Gör., Kaharamanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Department of Psychology,


    KILINÇ, P., YILMAZ, M.S. (2022) The Determination of Socioeconomic Situations that Affect the Life Conditions of Poor Households: The Case of Elazığ, Çalışma ve Toplum, C.1, S.76. s. 235-262

    Makale Geliş Tarihi:05.06.2022 - Makale Kabul Tarihi: 09.10.2022

    [3]  “Yaşar, M. R. (2009). Elazığ Yoksulluk Haritası Projesi. Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi19(2), 249-264.”; “Yusufoğlu, Ö., & Kızmaz, Z. (2016). Parçalanmış Ailelerde Yoksulluk Ve Sosyal Dışlanma: Elazığ Örneği. Social Sciences11(1), 27-40.”; “Aygen, M. (2016). Türkiye'de Yoksulluk Ve Sosyal Yardım Yaklaşımı Üzerine: Elazığ Örneği. Avrasya Uluslararası Araştırmalar Dergisi4(8), 150-179.”; “Ertürk, Ş. (2011). Yoksulluk Olgusu: Elazığ Örneği (Doctoral Dissertation, Anadolu University (Turkey)).”

    [4]  Yaşar, M. R. (2009). Elazığ Yoksulluk Haritası Projesi. Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi19(2), 249-264.

    [5]  Evcim, N., Güneş, S. Ve Karaalp Orhan, H. S. (2019). Yoksulluk Ve Ekonomik Göstergeler Arasındaki İlişki: Mena Bölgesi Analizi. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, Sayı 36, Denizli. S.291-310